Important Parts of a Psychology Essay

An essay is a conglomeration of compatible parts. Each essay has parts which work hand in hand to achieve the overall success of an essay. Essays without all the important parts contain missing information. It leaves the reader in a state of confusion as the ideas don’t link up.

When writing a psychology essay, there are important parts which if left out, the essay would be irrelevant. The parts provide navigation through the essay, increasing its understandability and making it easily read. If you want to write a good psychology essay, below are essential parts:

  1. An introduction

The introduction is the most important part of your psychology essay. It helps the reader to identify with the subject and to define the key terms. It helps highlight the significant issues about the question. It is here where you let the reader know how you will focus your essay by identifying the main themes to be discussed.

When writing, ensure that your introduction shows how your argument is structured. If possible, it is advisable to write the conclusion after you are done with the main body. It is only after writing the body that you have a good understanding of the topic area. The introduction is the most crucial part as it determines the attitude in which the reader will read your essay. The first impression, in the introductory paragraph, will tell it all.

  1. The Flow

The body of an essay is important, but how your ideas come off the page is very significant. Many students may have the same content to write on a psychology essay, but the students with better communication, in terms of articulation and conciseness will score higher. After writing your first draft, you must check to see if your essay has a flow.

For your essay to have a flow, it should have a global structure. The last sentence in one paragraph links the first sentence in the next paragraph. Avoid repeating citations as it unnecessarily disrupts the flow of an essay.

  1. The Body

When preparing to write a psychology essay, you should save the best energy for the body. The body is where the argument outlined in the introduction is fully developed. Each paragraph within the body elaborates a point, providing evidence to the argument in the thesis statement. In the body, the main point in every paragraph has to be clearly stated as the topic sentence.

  1. The Conclusion

Many students underrate the importance of a conclusion. It is a crucial part of a psychology essay as it summarizes the arguments in the essay. It helps you to give your standpoint on the argument using the provided evidence to come to a decision.

Your conclusion can also offer recommendations on future researches that need to be conducted and why. To avoid confusion, you should not include any new information in the essay conclusion. It should answer the essay question asked in one paragraph. A point that embraces many themes can be used to clinch the essay.

  1. Referencing

A psychology essay paper involves a lot of research. The reference part is, therefore, the most important as it gives credibility to your essay. In this part, you list all the sources cited in the essay in alphabetical order. It means that every time you mention psychologists, be sure to quote the source of information.


Ethical Dilemma

According to Wilkinson (26), ethical dilemma is an inherent characteristic. It reflects the involvement of workers who are majorly surrounded by conflicting values. For an employee to experience this kind of dilemma, he or she must have an extensive awareness of the accepted ethics at work. This kind of awareness enables such workers to effectively respond to their professional responsibilities and make informed interventions. Moreover, there has to be balance between the personal wellbeing and the societal norms. Therefore as asserted by Gentry (46), in order for someone to excel at work, they have to identify the contextual factors that influence the professional ethics.

Decision Making

Funk (51) emphasizes that professional ethics encompass the notions of good and evil in human beings. Thus philosophy gives a conceptual insight on how people can apply ethical principles at work. However, Gentry (48) affirms that professional ethics remain abstract if not understood from the philosophical origins’ point of view. From this, the ethical dilemma in the excerpt is evident when Rick picks an envelope with $500 in it. The cash is supposedly from Morty, a fellow library student worker. He knows that Morty has been running some illegal business within the library and definitely, that is how he had raised the money. The urge to pick the envelope is more reinforcing; however, the repercussions are shocking. Rick is therefore stuck between whether to report the matter to the relevant authorities or just ignore. The most climactic part of the dilemma is that either of the decisions he makes may eventually hurt one of them.

Alternatives and their Consequences

Wilkinson (27) states that the right ethical decisions depend solely on the perception of circumstances by someone. Nonetheless, it is human nature to come up with the rightful opinion if it is possible for them to gain some particular virtues. This is made possible by cultivating specific dispositions, and categorically engaging in educating what is more desirable. From the excerpt, Rick has alternatives. However, each alternative seems to have an impact on both parties. Firstly, Rick can accept the cash and spend it. The pertinent issue though is whether the trend would continue in future. However the eventuality of this may be alarming to both Rick and Morty. Both of them may get expelled and charged in court for not only leaking the University’s confidential information to the public but also running an illegal business within the library. The second option is to report the illegality of Morty’s errand to the supervisor of the library. As much as he would be branded a snitch and obviously sabotage his friendship with Morty, he may be able to save himself from being expelled from the institution. Thirdly, Rick can give his colleague an ultimatum by cautioning him on how unethical and parlous his act is. Nevertheless, this may as well lead to the expulsion of both of them from the institution. Besides, Rick might be grilled for not reporting the matter at the right time to the relevant authorities.

An Implementation Plan

Equally important is the distinction between virtuous action and an act meant to conform to the expected virtues. According to Gentry (47), the distinction reflects on the belief that virtues are fundamentally matters desires which are right. As such,  accepting Morty’s bribe would be one of the most crucial moves by Rick in evidence collection against his colleague. This would make his workmate believe that they have a mutual understanding. It would then be easier convincing Morty to allow him join him in his dubious deals. As a result, Rick may get access to Morty’s work, learn how he manages to send the untraceable data to his clients. Upon gathering all these information, he would then inform his supervisor. Since, his personal involvement in the illicit business with Morty could as well implicate him, it is important that he discloses the entire ordeal to his senior.

Measures to Curb the Situation  

In order to avoid such occurrences in future, it is necessitous for the administration of the organization to come up with measures of curbing the menace. In accordance to the core values of the institution which emphasize on an individual’s integrity and holistic development; the following measures would be the most appropriate: to begin with, the library student workers should only get access to the sections of the library that strictly have students’ documents. This means, no student workers but library employees should be deployed in such sections to avoid such trespass. Secondly, there should be strict rules and regulations to guide the all the librarians. Moreover, the library should come up with very grievous penalties for anyone who works against the code and conduct of the library workers. Thirdly, an ICT technician should be employed so that to keep a close eye on the library database. This would make it easy for the organization to identify any form of alterations or interference. However, most importantly, the organization, through ICT students and with the help of the ICT department, should develop a security software that would inhibit any form of uncertainty.


Everyone is capable of doing what is good and the sole reason for choosing wrong is because of ignorance. Additionally, people have certain capabilities which are a reflection of a perfect knowledge a variety of idea. Thereupon, ethical awareness entails courage, justice and wisdom. It is the source of moral values and should not be judged empirically but on virtue reality. This can only be seen in a person’s mind and soul. Therefore virtuousness is happiness since only those with good moral quality have their souls in conditions that bring joy.

Dredging for Gold by Clark Spence


The articles have three central ideas. It addresses the development and use of dredging technology. It also highlights the impact of dredging on the landscape and the environment. Finally, the author discusses the reclamation of the land damaged by the dredgers. Clark views gold dredging technology as one that revolutionized the mining industry. According to the Author, the gold dredging technology developed in California has had profound use in many parts of the globe. Clark mainly focuses on the bucket ladder dredge because it is the most common, efficient and sophisticated and expensive all the dredgers available. The author mention that the machine is capable of extracting gold dirt in the bedrocks that lie fifty to a hundred feet below the surface.

According to Clark, a dredger has several effects on the landscape and environment. It affected the appearance of the land because it brought stones and cobbles to cover the topsoil creating rough irregular heaps with pools of water between them. Dredgers also led to floods of debris from dredged upriver. The dredging process also makes land unsuitable for both grazing and farming due to the coverage of top soils with debris o stones and cobbles.

However, the recognition of the impact of the dredging technology on the environment has not been appointing of focus because of the existence of recoiling and resoiling techniques such as auxiliary sluices, sand pumps, suction equipment and resurfacing with a steam shovel. In fact, the author mentions the use of the stones and rock deposited on land for other secondary usages, and this further adds to the laxity in considering the effect of this method on the environment.

Significant Points in the Article

The author argues that dredging technology has revolutionized the mining industry making mining more efficient and profitable. The method has reduced the use manual labor. Clark also points out the effect that the dredging has had on the environment such as rendering farming and grazing land unusable. The technology also has affected the way landscape through the deposited debris and stones. Another point mentioned in the article is that though the dredger damages the environment and landscape it is possible to reclaim such land through recoiling and resoiling.

Childbearing and Intersectional Analysis of Reproduction

Conditions for child bearing are the most important aspect of motherhood for any woman as opposed to the number of children or the interval of births. The conditions that determine productive childbearing have socio-economic, cultural, and political aspects which all come together to create a massive utmost condition for childbearing amongst women in any society. These factors and condition compliment are the known biological parameters of child bearing, which also depend on the availability of pre-natal and post-natal-care services which give the reproductive services and process a multi-dimensional outlook (Luna 345).  According to Bettina, the socio-cultural, economic, and political conditions that care for both the maternal and the infant health should be upheld and availed in the society to ensure that the healthcare sector is truly able to undertake effective and efficient child bearing procedure to women. The intersectional analysis of child bearing on human rights and social justice makes the child bearing concept a complicated issue and not just a biological process, since the rights of the infant and those of the mother have to be observed. The use of contraceptives and abortions provide the conditions and the platform for the discussion of the matters that include the fetus construction and the aspect of fetal rights versus the maternal rights.

The social aspect of the childbearing concept is highlighted by a specialist and professional reproductive justice scholar on sociology and women healthcare in the society, Zakiya Luna, who highlights the concepts of the transition from rights to justice in the matters of child bearing. Just like Bettina placed it, Luna believes that child bearing is a multifaceted concept that has to be viewed from all the aspects of social change, such as political, social, economic, and moral grounds, with more emphasis on legal matters. In her research, Luna focuses on the coalition dynamics in social movement to demystify the issues to do with legal matters of fetal and maternal rights and healthcare situation during child bearing processes and periods. Understanding of human rights and how well they effect the provision of healthcare services to both the mother and child are key concepts that have to be analyzed in terms of the roles that they play to influence a child bearing decision (Roberts & Jesudason 323). Whether the women or the healthcare institution decides to recommend the use of contraceptives or the abortion and the matters that constitute the fetal construction process, it should bear in mind more of justice as opposed to the rights of either the parent or the child. Social identities emphasize the encouragement or discouragement of reproduction of certain social groups, based on the social policies and the cultural stereotypes in the society. A typical example is the racial discrimination, which influences the reproduction attention of the America women of color, according to Luna.

Intersectional analysis of the childbearing parameters would mean that the matter takes very complicated concepts in understanding the criticisms and favoritism based on the fetal rights versus the maternal rights in the society. According to Bettina, besides the known biological process of reproduction, it has other parameters such as the racial and social discrimination, political and economic matters, as well as the legal implications, which all team up to give a multifaceted approach. Creation of a cohesive movement that looks at the rights of both the mother and the unborn or born child enables the application of reproductive justice concept to counter the social justice which takes center stage whenever issues and debates on abortion are provided (Luna 355). Through intersectional analysis of the child bearing concept, it is possible to forge a working movement that would include all the dissenting views and opinions on the reproduction justice, women and fetal rights, social justice, and the activities in these fields, to ensure that reproduction and childbearing is an intersection of rights, races, social justice, political, and economic parameters. The intersectional approach enables the building of common approach of handling the reproduction and the rights or justice matters associated with it.

Policy priorities are more important in handling the maternal and fetal reproduction stalemate due to the application of intersectional-based policy analysis framework, which highlights the need for the clear understanding of the appropriateness of using abortion or contraceptives, as well as fetal construction. Construction of the fetus as a person and other medical practices such as abortion and use of contraceptives often complicate the intersectional analysis of the reproduction and the aspect of respecting the rights of both “persons” in the child bearing process. The cost maternal and fetal care, coupled with social and cultural practices that encourage or discourage the construction of both human rights, including the mother’s and the infant’s, are the key parameters in the realization of effective, just, and righteous childbearing in the society (Roberts & Jesudason 322). There is the need to critically analyze and interlink the issues around the social justice and reproduction justice, as postulated by Luna in her research and studies on women and reproduction, that would bring the harmony in tackling the healthcare implications during child bearing, based on human rights and the justice to all humanity concepts. Both Luna and Bettina are discussing the concepts that would ensure that applicable, just, and right decisions are made towards the realization of intersectional aspects of childbearing. These include effective application of the fetal and the maternal rights to facilitate legal and moral consideration in their judgments. Also, the alignment of social, political, and economic parameters of the society to favor effective childbearing is a sound decision that requires the input of the society at large and the healthcare providing agencies.

Conditions for child bearing are thus not only produced by the biological conditions, but with the identification of both social and cultural dimensions, economic status of the community and the mothers involved in the childbearing, and the availability of the intersectional concept in analyzing the childbearing based on rights of both the mother and fetus are key in the understanding the legal and the righteous moves to make, as well as help in the construction of a common movement that helps in the understanding of issues relating to reproduction. A multifaceted move thus requires these conditions to be upheld with total regards to the rights and the privileges of children and their mothers to ensure that decisions and actions are justifiable. When these socio-cultural, economic, and political parameters of healthcare provision to both maternal and fetal components of reproduction are fully upheld through intersectional analysis that tries to explain the rights and the justice components of reproductive system, then there is a likelihood of an improved healthcare provision to determine the best practices in the reproduction and childbearing.